After his death in 54 AD (at age of 63), his grand-nephew and adopted son Nero succeeded him as Emperor.
He was born at Lugdunum in Gaul, the first (and until Trajan, the only) Roman Emperor to be born outside Italy.
Because he was afflicted with a limp and slight deafness due to sickness at a young age, his family ostracized him and excluded him from public office until his consulship, shared with his nephew Caligula in 37.
There is some speculation that the inscription was added by Claudius himself decades later, and that he originally did not appear at all.
When Augustus died in 14 AD, Claudius — then 23 — appealed to his uncle Tiberius to allow him to begin the cursus honorum.
Claudius' infirmity probably saved him from the fate of many other nobles during the purges of Tiberius's and Caligula's reigns; potential enemies did not see him as a serious threat.
His survival led to his being declared Emperor by the Praetorian Guard after Caligula's assassination, at which point he was the last man of his family.
He was a descendant of the Octavii Rufi (through Gaius Octavius), Julii Caesares (through Julia Minor and Julia Antonia), and the Claudii Nerones (through Nero Claudius Drusus); he was a great-nephew of Augustus through his full sister Octavia Minor, a nephew of Tiberius through his father Drusus, Tiberius' brother, an uncle of Caligula and finally a great-uncle of Nero through Caligula's father and Nero's grandfather Germanicus, his brother.
Claudius was born on 1 August 10 BC at Lugdunum (modern Lyon, France). His mother, Antonia, may have had two other children who died young.
He could not be trusted to toe the existing party line.