Slightly warmer conditions existed in the Early Bathonian (~ 27.0 °C), while the Kimmeridgian shows the lowest temperatures (~ 24.3 °C).Oxygen isotopes of biogenic apatite have been widely used to reassess anomalous temperatures inferred from oxygen isotope ratios of ancient biogenic calcite, more prone to diagenetic alteration.
The Department of Physics Education is situated at the Leibniz Institute for Science and Mathematics Education (IPN).
Please refer to the department’s website (in German) for further information.
Combined with highly stable power supplies, this gives reproducible measurements.
The acceptance tests, e.g., showed that Poisson counting statistics at 0.15% and 0.22% respectively, determined the statistical uncertainty in the ratios measured for the individual samples of two test series.
The open system design of the beam optics allows significant horizontal and vertical movement of the ion beams without loss to the walls of the system.
This leads to plateaus in the response of the isotope beams and ratios to changing values of various ion optical elements.
Our radiocarbon calibration program is publicly accessible at:
LDEO.columbia.edu/ along with full documentation of the samples, data, and our statistical calibration model.
The AMS system is similar to those at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, USA, and the University of Groningen, The Netherland, but it has some new features based on experience at these two facilities.