Gas street lighting was implemented in 1867, the University of Adelaide was founded in 1874, the South Australian Art Gallery opened in 1881 and the Happy Valley Reservoir opened in 1896.In the 1890s Australia was affected by a severe economic depression, ending a hectic era of land booms and tumultuous expansionism.
Governor Gawler took over from Hindmarsh in late 1838 and, despite being under orders from the Select Committee on South Australia in Britain not to undertake any public works, promptly oversaw construction of a governor's house, the Adelaide Gaol, police barracks, a hospital, a customs house and a wharf at Port Adelaide.
Gawler was recalled and replaced by Governor Grey in 1841.
The site of the colony's capital was surveyed and laid out by Colonel William Light, the first Surveyor-General of South Australia, through the design made by the architect George Strickland Kingston.
Adelaide was established as a planned colony of free immigrants, promising civil liberties and freedom from religious persecution, based upon the ideas of Edward Gibbon Wakefield.
Financial institutions in Melbourne and banks in Sydney closed.
The national fertility rate fell and immigration was reduced to a trickle.Wool production provided an early basis for the South Australian economy.By 1860, wheat farms had been established from Encounter Bay in the south to Clare in the north.Trade links with the rest of the Australian states were established with the Murray River being successfully navigated in 1853 by Francis Cadell, an Adelaide resident.South Australia became a self-governing colony in 1856 with the ratification of a new constitution by the British parliament.Kaurna culture and language was almost completely destroyed within a few decades of the European settlement of South Australia in 1836.