Economically, however, Jews were markedly different from members of the surrounding population.
Jews, on the other hand, were concentrated in urban settings, where more than 80 percent made their homes.
The larger urban areas in Ukraine were typically evenly divided among Russians, Ukrainians, and Jews, but Jews dominated even these settings in the western Ukrainian provinces of Volhynia and Podolia.
It is apparent that Karaism had some influence on the Kievan Jewish community as well.
Jews were expelled from Kiev at the end of the fifteenth century.
After the rebellion subsided, sporadic attacks on Jews continued, including the Haidamak rebellion of 1768, which particularly devastated the Jewish community of Uman.
With the Polish partitions at the end of the eighteenth century, the region embracing most of the territory of contemporary Ukraine was annexed to the Russian Empire and eventually was designated part of the geographical ghetto limiting Jewish residence known as the Pale of Jewish Settlement.On many markers of cultural identity, Jewish culture shows evidence of Ukrainian influence, and vice versa.While both groups retained, for example, quite distinct languages—Ukrainian and Yiddish—borrowed terminology is common to both.An exception was Kiev, where Jewish residence continued to be forbidden, although several thousand Jews lived there illegally in the early twentieth century.Tensions between Jews and the surrounding Ukrainian populations continued throughout the nineteenth century, but did not slow the inevitable process of cultural cross-fertilization that informed much of both cultures.Ukrainian folk songs record numerous abusive practices from this period, including a possibly mythical description of the practice of paying a fee to Jewish authorities to gain access to the church for ritual functions, and the attempts of Catholic Poles to wean the overwhelmingly Eastern-rite Ukrainians from their Orthodox tradition.