However, beside the materials already mentioned, using glass, lead, zinc, and some types of electrolytes like caustic soda and sulfuric acid produce stronger types of non-rechargeable Bagdad-types of primary batteries - as well as powerful rechargeable storage or secondary batteries that could have been used for ancient electric lighting.
The ancients had access to all of these materials: of the Soviet Union unearthed what is considered to be the oldest large-scale metallurgical factory in the world at Medzamor, in Soviet Armenia.
The upper part of the iron rod shows that it was at first round, and while the lower end has partly corroded away so that the rod is pointed now at the lower end, it might be safely assumed that in the beginning it was of uniform thickness. - one naturally feels very reluctant to accept such an explanation, but there is really no alternative.
You may wonder what this had to do with electric batteries.
It seems that copper vases, some of whose ages go back 4000 years, were unearthed several years ago which had designs plated on them in gold or silver, even some were plated with antimony." "Occasionally, we feel a bit smug about our tremendous advances in the nuclear science and the like, but when we are scooped by some ancient metal smiths we are most assuredly brought down to earth and humbled.
The origin of their method cannot be ascertained and seems to date back a number of years.
Since galvanic batteries of the type found would generate a sufficiently powerful current for electrogilding small articles fashioned of silver, it might very well be that the origin of the method has to be sought in antiquity." Electrogilding or electroplating basically only requires rods or wire, a couple of simple electric cells (batteries) connected to a bath of common chemicals wherein the items to be electroplated are placed.
Here, 4,500 years ago, an unknown prehistoric people worked with over 200 furnaces, producing an assortment of vases, knives, spearheads, rings, bracelets, etc.
The Medzamor craftsmen wore mouth-filters and gloves while they labored and fashioned their wares of copper, lead, zinc, iron, gold, tin, manganese and fourteen kinds of bronze. "The remarkable fact was announced some years ago that certain gastropod mollusca secrete free sulfuric acid; and this has since then been not infrequently observed in the case of the gigantic Dolium galea, which discharges from its proboscis a drop of liquid or saliva that produces a very sensible effervescence on chalk or marble.His staff had been overwhelmed by the number of prisoners brought to the facility by the US-backed coalition forces as they sweep the city clean of militants after a gruelling nine-month-long campaign.“Prisoners are infected with diseases, lots of health and skin problems, because they're not exposed to the sun,” the official said, speaking on condition of anonymity. Their legs are swollen because they can't move.” One prisoner said that to his knowledge at least two fellow detainees had died at the facility.It may be ordered by clicking: were some pretty smart metal workers in the ancient city of Baghdad, Persia [now Iraq].They did a lot of fine work in steel, gold, and silver.And all of them have spent more than six months here,” one prisoner who said he was a civil servant told the AP out of earshot of his guards.