An Umayyad clan member had previously come to power as the third Rashidun Caliph, Uthman ibn Affan (r.
644–656), but official Umayyad rule was established by Muawiya ibn Abi Sufyan, long-time governor of Syria, after the end of the First Muslim Civil War in AD 661.
The employment of Christians was part of a broader policy of religious assimilation that was necessitated by the presence of large Christian populations in the conquered provinces, as in Syria.
The Umayyads were involved in frequent battles with the Christian Byzantines without being concerned with protecting themselves in Syria, which had remained largely Christian like many other parts of the empire.
Prominent positions were held by Christians, some of whom belonged to families that had served in Byzantine governments.
Enter “Ayo Poligami” — a new smartphone app developed by Pranayama, which aims to “bring together male users with women who are willing to make ‘big families’.”Loosely translated as “Let’s do polygamy,” the Tinder-style dating app has already stirred up controversy since its April launch in Indonesia, where over 80 percent of the 250 million population are Muslim and polygamy is legal.
Muslim men can take up to four wives in Indonesia, the world’s most populous Muslim country, if permission is granted by a court and the first wife gives her consent.
Lawyer Rachmat Dwi Putranto, who deals with marriage matters, said polygamy is “not that easily achieved” as Indonesian courts will only give permission if the first wife is disabled, ill or cannot bear children.
VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMENBut Indriyati Suparno, a commissioner from the government-backed National Commission on Violence Against Women, said the app was trying to “normalize polygamy.” “The reality is women tend to be the victims of domestic violence in a polygamous marriage — polygamy is a form of violence against women,” she said.
The battle saw three top leaders of the Umayyad clan (Utba ibn Rabi'ah, Walid ibn Utbah and Shaybah) killed by Hashimites (Ali, Hamza ibn ‘Abd al-Muttalib and Ubaydah ibn al-Harith) in a three-on-three melee.
Abu Sufyan sought to exterminate the adherents of the new religion by waging another battle with Muslims based in Medina only a year after the Battle of Badr. The Battle of Uhud is generally believed by scholars to be the first defeat for the Muslims, as they had incurred greater losses than the Meccans.
At its greatest extent, the Umayyad Caliphate covered 11,100,000 km At the time, the Umayyad taxation and administrative practice were perceived as unjust by some Muslims.