For example, Cape Kumukahi is located in a volcanically active province in Eastern Hawaii, while Mauna Loa Observatory is on Mauna Loa, an active volcano - both observatories within 50km of the highly active Kilauea and its permanent 3.2 Mt COpa plume.
Samoa is within 50 km of the active volcanoes Savai'i and/or Upolo, while Kermandec Island observatory is located within 10 km of the active Raoul Island volcano.
The second powerpoint looks at smoke alarms and medical tracers, whilst the third powerpoint covers carbon and uranium dating of rocks and a blockbusters style game on the topic.
If the C of the stream DIC is determined, in theory one can calculate the relative contributions of these two sources of carbon to the production of stream or groundwater DIC and carbonate alkalinity.
This assumes that: (1) there are no other sources or sinks for carbon, and (2) calcite dissolution occurs under closed-system conditions (Kendall et al., 1992).
One such study found that chlorinated solvents (TCE, PCA, and TCE) supplied by different manufacturers had distinctive C and Cl isotopic signatures (Aravena et al., 1996). "Controls on the transport and carbon isotopic composition of dissolved organic carbon in a shallow groundwater system, Central Ontario, Canada", Please contact Carol Kendall ([email protected]) for questions and comments regarding this page.
This appears to be a very promising avenue of research, although the analysis of d Other information can be found in the chapter: "Tracing of Weathering Reactions and Water Flowpaths: A Multi-isotope Approach" by Bullen and Kendall (1998).
If we neglect to ask how the greenhouse effect of various gases is quantified in terms of real, measurable thermodynamic properties, the idea of anthropogenic global warming may well survive long enough for us to ask how the carbon budget establishes that observed increases in CO is one of the lightest volatiles (materials of relatively low melting point), found in the mantle (Wilson, 1989).
The fluid nature of the aesthenosphere, or upper mantle of the earth, ensures that lighter volatiles are fractionated, buoyed towards the surface, and either extruded or outgassed into the atmosphere via volcanoes and faults.
In addition, the C is probably the most important radio-isotopic tool for dating deep groundwater, despite serious problems related to potential interactions of DIC species with the carbonate minerals and possible contributions of C data is used within the constraints of a geochemical reaction path model which accounts for the sources and sinks of carbon along the flowpath (Plummer et al., 1983; 1991).
Also in Clark and Fritz (1997): 14C Dating with DOC Source of text: This review was assembled by Carol Kendall, Eric Caldwell and Dan Snyder, primarily from Kendall et al.
With additional chemical or isotopic information, the C may provide evidence that such processes are insignificant for a particular study.
Carbon isotopes can also be useful tracers of the seasonal and discharge-related contributions of different hydrologic flowpaths to streamflow (Kendall et al., 1992).
This method provides a much more distinctive signature of organic sources than the bulk isotopic composition usually measured.