In the 19th century, Calcutta's traders and merchants traded with the rest of the British Empire, continental Europe, the United States and China.
The region was the historical centre of the Nanda, Mahameghavahana dynasty Maurya, Kharavela, Shunga, Kalinga, Eastern Ganga dynasty, Shishunaga dynasty, Gupta and Pala empires that ruled much of the Indian sub-continent at their prime.
In medieval India, it was incorporated into the Mughal, Maratha and then the British empire.
Jharkhand, on the Chhota Nagpur plateau, is a hilly and a heavily forested state rich in mineral wealth. The region is bounded by the Nepal and Sikkim Himalayas in the north, the states of Uttar Pradesh and Chhattisgarh on the west, the state of Andhra Pradesh in the south and the Bay of Bengal on the east.
It is connected to the Seven Sister States of Northeast India by the narrow Siliguri Corridor in the north east of West Bengal.
After the Kalinga War the Maurya king Ashoka sent emissaries to spread Buddhism across Asia. Chinese travellers visited Buddhist and Hindu temples and libraries in the universities of Magadha Empire.
The Emperor of Kalinga Mahameghavahana Aira Kharavela was one of the most powerful monarchs of ancient India.East India including Bihar and West Bengal was part of the Mughal Empire in the 16th and 17th centuries.Odisha remained a powerful Hindu dynasty under the rule of Soma/Keshari Dynasty, Eastern Ganga Dynasty, Surya Dynasty till the end of the 16th century.The mighty Nalanda University existed at Nalanda which was destroyed by Bakhtiar Khilji during the 12th century and also defeated Sena Dynasty.Sher Shah Suri, who became king of India after defeating Humayun, founded the city of Patna on the ruins of ancient Pataliputra.Odishaa classical dance Odissi and a classical music Odissi music are also well known in India.