Finally in the third phase, modernist arts and individual creativity marked the beginning of a new modernist age as it combats oppressive politics, economics as well as other social forces including mass media (Laughey 2007, 30).
Both these principles are enshrined within the constitutions of most modern democracies.
It has been observed that while Machiavelli's realism saw a value to war and political violence, his lasting influence has been "tamed" so that useful conflict was deliberately converted as much as possible to formalized political struggles and the economic "conflict" encouraged between free, private enterprises (Rahe 2006, chapt. Starting with Thomas Hobbes, attempts were made to use the methods of the new modern physical sciences, as proposed by Bacon and Descartes, applied to humanity and politics (Berns 1987).
In the most basic terms, Anthony Giddens describes modernity as ...a shorthand term for modern society, or industrial civilization.
Portrayed in more detail, it is associated with (1) a certain set of attitudes towards the world, the idea of the world as open to transformation, by human intervention; (2) a complex of economic institutions, especially industrial production and a market economy; (3) a certain range of political institutions, including the nation-state and mass democracy.
"—a literary and artistic quarrel within the Académie française in the early 1690s.
In these usages, "modernity" denoted the renunciation of the recent past, favouring a new beginning, and a re-interpretation of historical origin.This thought influenced the political (and aesthetic) thinking of Immanuel Kant, Edmund Burke and others and led to a critical review of modernist politics.On the conservative side, Burke argued that this understanding encouraged caution and avoidance of radical change.According to Marshall Berman (1982, 16–17), modernity is periodized into three conventional phases (dubbed "Early," "Classical," and "Late," respectively, by Peter Osborne (1992, 25)): In the second phase Berman draws upon the growth of modern technologies such as the newspaper, telegraph and other forms of mass media.There was a great shift into modernization in the name of industrial capitalism.He also proposed that an aim of politics is to control one's own chance or fortune, and that relying upon providence actually leads to evil.